Black carbon is a primary aerosol component of diesel particulate matter (DPM), a known toxin and regulated pollutant by several regulatory agencies, including the California Air Resources Board. DPM is known to cause adverse health effects, including asthma attacks, bronchitis and other respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms. Black carbon is the second leading cause of global warming. Black carbon is a primary pollutant to the atmosphere through a variety of incomplete combustion sources and fuels; black carbon concentration cannot be modeled or predicted, it must be measured. Black carbon is NOT adequately characterized through PM2.5 mass-only measurements; chemical speciation is necessary.